Application Software and why required.

Q4. What is application software? Why is it required?

Ans. Application software is a software that pertains to one application.

Application software is required because system software cannot carry out the routine jobs performed by the user which application software can easily do.

To perform various kinds of activities, the application software comes in various categories :

  1. Packages,
  2. Utilities,
  3. Business Software,
  4. Developer Tools.

Difference between Interpreter and Compiler.

Q3. What is the difference between an interpreter and a compiler?

Ans. An interpreter converts an HLL program into machine language line by line and simultaneously executes the converted line. Also, an interpreter must always be present in the memory along with the program for its execution. If an error occurs in a line, the line is displayed and interpreter does not proceed unless the error is rectified.

A compiler converts an HLL program into machine language in one go. If there are errors in the program, its gives the error list along with the line numbers. Once the errors are removed, error-free object code is made available and after this compiler is no more needed in the memory.

Various Types of Operating System.

Q2. What are the various types of operating system?

Ans. The operating systems are of mainly following types:

  1. Single program OS. As the name suggests, this OS is single user operating system, so only one user program can be supported and executed by it at any point of time.
  2. Multiprogram OS. Unlike single program OS, this is multiuser OS. It support multiprogramming i.e., more than one user can be supported by it, therefore, more than one user program are loaded and active int he main store at the same time.These active programs are executed using some techniques, one by one.
  3. Time Sharing OS. This OS uses the time sharing technique. Each active program is given a fair share of CPU time, if the time elapses or an I/O operation is requested, CPU shifts over to the next job waiting and the previous program is put to wait. The active programs are scheduled for execution using certain job scheduling techniques.
  4. Real Time OS. In real time OS, the jobs have fixed deadlines and the jobs have to be completed within their deadlines. The system performance is measured by its ability to complete its jobs within the specified deadlines.
  5.  Multiprocessing OS. The multiprocessing OS is capable of handling more than one processors as the jobs have to be executed on more than one processor.

Software Concepts.

Q1. What are the various categories of software?

Q2. What are the various types of operating system?

Q3. What is the difference between an interpreter and a compiler?

Q4. What is application software? Why is it required?

Q5. What features of word processors make them very useful?

Q6. What features of electronic spreadsheets make them useful?

Q7. What is a DBMS?

Q8. What is fragmentation? How does it affect computer’s performance? What remedy do you suggest for it?

Q9. Describe why authentication is important for file protection.

Various categories of Software.

Q1. What are the various categories of software?

Ans. There are broadly two categories of software:

  1. System Software.This type of software controls internal computer operations. The system software can further be classified in two categories:
    • Operating System. An operating system is a program which acts as an interface between a user and the hardware.
    • ¬†Language Processor. This program is responsible for converting a HLL code (High Level Language code) into machine understandable form.
  2. Application Software. An application software is the set of programs necessary to carry out operations of a specified application.

Why binary language termed as machine language.Why required.

Q11. Why is binary language often termed as machine language? Why is machine language required?

Ans. A computer (the machine) operates on electricity. Thus, it can understand only electricity signals that are just two-ON and OFF or high voltage and low voltage. Thus it needs a language that uses just two unique symbols to represent these two states of electricity. Therefore, a computer works on the machine language. The binary language is often termed as machine language as it fulfills the condition of using two unique symbols to represent two states of electricity.

Port and Some Port Types.

Q21. What is a port? Name some port types.

Ans. Port are the points on computer having associated circuitry to allow connection of external devices with computer. Ports can be various types:

  • Serial Port
  • Parallel Port
  • USB Port
  • AGP Port
  • Infra-Red Port
  • Bluetooth Port
  • Network Port
  • Phone Port