Getting Started with C++

Q1. What is the difference between a keyword and identifier?

Q2. What are literals in C++ ? How many types of literals are allowed in C++ ?

Q3. How many ways are there in C++ to represent an integer constant?

Q4. What is the difference between ‘a’ and “a” in C++ ?

Q5. What will be the sizes of following constants: ‘\a’, “\a”, “Reema\’s”, ‘\”’ ?

Q6. What factors guide the choice of identifiers in programs?

Q7. Assume that X has been declared as an integer variable in a C++ program. What will happen if the program encounters non-integer data while reading the value of X? How can the situation be rectified?

Q8. What does the file iostream.h consist of?

Q9. What are the predefined stream objects in I/O library?


Differentiate Keyword and Identifier

Q1. What is the difference between a keyword and identifier?

Ans. Keyword is special word that has a special meaning and purpose. Keywords are reserved and are a few.

For example, goto, switch, else etc. are keywords.

Identifier  is the use-defined name given to a part of a program viz. variable, object, function etc. Identifiers are not reserved. These are defined by user but they can have letters, digits and a symbol underscore. They must begin with either a letter or underscore.

For instance, _chk, chess, trial etc. are identifiers in C++.

Computer Overview – Short Question Answers

Q1. What is a computer?

Q2. Define and distinguish between data and information.

Q3. Briefly explain the significance of Input-Process-Output Cycle.

Q4. Briefly explain the basic architecture of a computer.

Q5. What do you understand by input unit? What is its significance? What does computer input consist of?

Q6. What is the function of CPU in a computer system? What are its subunits?

Q7. What functions are performed by the control unit? Can we call it the control centre of computer system? Why?

Q8. What functions are performed by the ALU? Is it an independent unit? If not, which unit does ALU work in coordination with?

Q9. Distinguish between Input unit and Output unit.

Q10. Distinguish between CPU and ALU.

Q11. What is the function of output unit in a computer system? Give example of some output devices.

Q12. What role does memory play in the functioning of computer system?

Q13. What is a bit? What is binary code?

Q14. Define each of the following:

(a) nibble

(b) byte

(c) kilobyte

(d) megabyte

(e) gigabyte

(f) terabyte.

Q15. What is the meaning of the term volatile primary memory? What can be done to overcome the problems of volatility?

Q16. Distinguish between internal and external memory.

Q17. Draw a block diagram of the main units of a computer hardware system.

Q18. What are the differences between hardware, software and firmware?

Q19. What are the software classifications? Discuss their functioning in brief.

Q20. What is the binary system used in the computers?

Q21. What is the difference between system software and application software?

Q22. How are human compared with respect to speed and capacity of information processing?

Q23. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using computers?

Q24. Explain briefly the major innovations of

(i) first generation computers,

(ii) second generation computers,

(iii) third generation computers,

(iv) fourth generation computers?

Q25. What is the Von Neumann architecture? Did it influence the making of computers? How?

Q26. Describe the stored-program concept and explain how it changed computer processing.

Q27. How are the computers of four different generations superior as compared to their previous models?

Q28. How are computers classified? How are they different from one another?

Q29. How is the microcomputer different from the other computers?

Q30. What are the four different types of computers based on their working methods?

Q31. Identify and discuss characteristics and uses of

(a) Minicomputers

(b) Mainframe computers, and

(c) Supercomputers.

Q32. Compare microcomputers with minicomputers and mainframe in terms of size, cost and capabilities.

Q33. List at least three advantages of computer data processing over manual methods.

Q34. What do you understand by the term ‘Super Computers’? Give the name of a supercomputer installed in India.

Q35. How are digital, analog and hybrid computers different from one another?

Computer Overview – Multiple Choice Questions

Q1. In computer science, by information we mean

(a) any output coming out from computer

(b) processed data put in intelligent form

(c) a report printed by computer

(d) plural of data


Ans.Option (b)


Q2. Data is a collection of

(a) Facts and entities relevant to user

(b) Raw material

(c) Numbers and alphabets

(d) Input material for a computer


Ans. Option (a)


Q3. The central processing unit

(a) Is operated from the control panel

(b) Is controlled by the input data entering the system

(c) Controls the storage unit

(d) controls all input, output and processing


Ans. Option (c)


Q4. Which of the following does not represent an I/O device?

(a) speaker which beeps

(b) plotter

(c) joystick

(d) ALU


Ans. Option (d)


Q5. Storage of 1 KB means the following number or bytes:

(a) 1000

(b) 964

(c) 1024

(d) 1064


Ans. Option (c)


Q6. One Megabyte is equivalent to

(a) 210 bytes

(b) 220 bytes

(c) 230 bytes

(d) none of these


Ans. Option (d)


Q7. Computer’s main memory

(a) performs all calculations

(b) receives input data

(c) is extremely limited

(d) is computer’s workbench


Ans. Option (d)


Q8. The control unit of the computer

(a) performs logical operations on the data

(b) manually operates the computer

(c) directs the other units of the computer

(d) all the above


Ans. Option (c)


Q9. Which of the following are parts of the CPU?


(b) memory

(c) control unit

(d) input device

(e) printer


Ans. Option (a) and (c)


Q10. The unit which coordinates the step-by-step running of the whole computer is the

(a) input device

(b) logic unit

(c) ALU

(d) control unit

(e) main memory


Ans. Option (e)


Q11. The purpose of an application program is to:

(a) convert program written in high level language to machine level language

(b) meet specific user’s needs

(c) allow the operating system to control resources better

(d) make equipment run better


Ans. Option (b)


Q12. Which of the following is not hardware?

(a) Hard Disk

(b) Printer

(c) Keyboard

(d) CPU

(e) Assembler

(f) Program to print table of 13


Ans. Option (d) and (e)


Q13. First generation computers:

(a) used vacuum tubes instead of switches and relays

(b) stored programs in the memory of the computer.

(c) were built in 19th century

(d) all the above


Ans. Option (d)


Q14. Second generation computers used

(a) vacuum tubes instead of electro-mechanical devices

(b) transistors instead of vacuum tubes

(c) integrated circuitry

(d) none of the above


Ans. Option (b)


Q15. Third generation computers:

(a) were the first to use built-in error detecting devices

(b) used transistors instead of vacuum tubes

(c) were the first to use integrated circuitry

(d) none of the above


Ans. Option (c)


Q16. Fourth generation computers:

(a) were the first to use microcomputers

(b) were built after 1970

(c) include microcomputers

(d) all the above


Ans. Option (a) and (c)


Q17. A microprocessor is

(a) a solid state device

(b) capable of performing arithmetic operations

(c) capable of performing logical operations

(d) all the above


Ans. Option (d)


Q18. The modern age of the data processing began with the completion of the computer:

(a) Analytical Engine


(c) MARK I



Ans. Option (a)

145 Thoughts from “You Can Win” – By Shiv Khera

145 Thoughts from “You Can Win” – By Shiv Khera


1. Winners don’t do different things. They do things differently.

2. Success doesn’t mean the absence of failures; it means the attainment of ultimate

objectives. It means winning the war, not every battle.

-Edwin C. Bliss


3. In a positive environment, a marginal performer’s output goes up. In negative environment, a good performer’s output goes down.”


4. Dreams are a dime a dozen… it’s their execution that counts.

-Theodore Roosevelt


5. Any fact facing us is not as important as our attitude toward it, for that determines our success or failure.

-Norman Vincent Peale


  1. Make a Habit of Doing it Now


He slept beneath the moon

He basked beneath the sun

He lived a life of going to do

and died with nothing done.

-James Albery


7. Never leave till tomorrow, which you can do today.

-Benjamin Franklin


8. Education without Values

Universities are turning out highly skilled barbarians because we don’t provide a framework of values to young people, who more and more are searching for it.

-Steven Muller, President, Johns Hopkins University


9. If you think education is expensive, try ignorance.

-Derek Bok


10. The first duty of a university is to teach wisdom, not trade, character, not technicalities.

-Winston Churchill


11. First, those who manage well the circumstances which they encounter day by day; and those who can judge situations appropriately as they arise and rarely miss the suitable course of action.

Next, those who are honorable in their dealings with all men, bearing easily what is unpleasant or offensive in others, and being as reasonable with their associates as is humanly possible.

Furthermore, those who hold their pleasures always under control and are not unduly overcome by their misfortunes, bearing up under them bravely and in a manner worthy of our common nature.

Most important of all, those who are not spoiled by third success, who do not desert their true selves, but hold their ground steadfastly as wise and sober-minded men, rejoicing no more in the good things that have come to them through chance than in those which through their own nature and intelligence are there since birth.

Those who have a character which is in accord, not with one of these things, but with all of them, these are educated possessed of all the virtues.

-Socrates(470-399 B.C.)


12. Being ignorant is not so much a shame as being unwilling to learn to do things the right way.

-Benjamin Franklin


13. Most people go to their graves, with music still in them.


14. One reason that I don’t drink is that I want to know when I am having a good time.

-Laby Astor

15. Drinking makes a person lose his inhibitions and give exhibitions.

16. I’ve drunk to your

Health in taverns,

I’ve drunk to your

Health in my home,

I’ve drunk to your

Health so damn

many times,

That I’ve almost

ruined my own!


17. Start by doing what is necessary, then what is possible, and suddenly you are doing the impossible.

-St. Francis of Assisi


18. If you are going to change your life, you need to start immediately.


19. You may be disappointed if you fail, but you will be doomed if you don’t try.

-Beverley Sills


20. Super achievers don’t waste time in unproductive thoughts, esoteric thoughts, or catastrophic thoughts. They think constructively and they know that their level of thinking determines their success.

-Dr. Seymour Epstein


21. If you really want to succeed, form the habit of doing things that failures don’t like to do.



22. To laugh often and love much;

To win the respect of intelligent persons

and the affection of children;

To earn the approval of honest critics

and endure the betrayal of false friends;

To appreciate beauty;

To find the best in others;

To give of one’s self without the

slightest thought of return;

To have accomplish a task, whether

a healthy child, a rescued soul, a

garden patch, or a redeemed social condition;

To have played and laughed with

Enthusiasm and sung with exaltation;

To know that even one life has breathed

easier because you have lived;

This is to have succeeded.



23. Success is the progressive realization of a worthy goal.

-Earl Nightingale


24. I don’t know the key to success, but the key to failure is trying to please everybody.

-Bill Cosby


25. Success and happiness go hand in hand. Success is getting what you want and happiness is wanting what you get.


26. Existence alone is not success! It is a lot more!


Do more than exist-live.

Do more than touch-feel.

Do more than look-observe.

Do more than read-absorb.

Do more than hear-listen.

Do more than listen-understand.

-John H. Rhoades


27. History has demonstrated that the most notable winners usually encountered heart-breaking obstacles before they triumphed. They won because they refused to become discouraged by their defeats.

– B. C. Forbes


28. Most people give up just when they’re about to achieve success. They quit on the one-yard line. They give up at the last minute of the game, on foot from a winning touchdown.

-H. Ross Perot


29. Let me share a famous life history with you. This was a man who failed in business at the age of 21; was defeated in a legislative race at age 22; failed again in business at age 24; had his sweetheart die when he was age 26; had a nervous breakdown at age 27; lost congressional race at age 34; lost a senatorial race at age 45; failed in an effort to become vice-president at age 47; lost a senatorial race at age 49; and was elected president of the United States at age 52. This man was Abraham Lincoln.


30. They succeeded in spite of problems, not in the absence of them. But to negative thinkers, it appears as though they just “got lucky”.




If you think you are beaten, you are.

If you think you dare not, you don’t!

If you like to win, but think you can’t

It’s almost a cinch you won’t.


If you think you’ll lose, you’re lost;

For out in the world we find

Success begins with a fellow’s will;

It’s all in the state of mind.


If you think you are outclassed, you are,

You’ve got to think high to rise,

You’ve got to be sure of yourself before

You can ever win a prize.


Life’s battles don’t always go

To the stronger and faster man,

But sooner or later the man who wins

Is the man who thinks he can.


32. Failures are of two kinds: those who did and never thought and those who thought and never did. Going through life without using your ability to think is like shooting without wining.


33. Destiny is not a matter a chance, it is a matter of choice; it is nor a thing to be waited for, it is a thing to be achieved.

-William Jennings Bryan


34. Health, happiness, and success depend upon the fighting spirit of each person. The big thing is not what happens to us in life- but what we do about what happens to us.

-George Allen


35. Whatever the mind of man can conceive believe, the mind can achieve.


36. Try no to become a success, but rather try to become a man of value.

-Albert Einstein


37. Integrity is keeping your commitments even if you lose money and wisdom is not to make foolish commitments.


38. Playing to win comes out of inspiration, whereas playing not to lose comes out of desperation.


39. When I’d get tired and want to stop, I’d wonder what my next opponent was doing. When I could see him still working. I’d start pushing myself. When I could see him in the shower, I’d push myself harder.

-Dan Gable, Olympic gold medalist in wrestling


40. The quality of a person’s life is in direct proportion to their commitment to excellence, regardless of their chosen field of endeavor.

-Vince Lombardi


41. You cannot bring about prosperity by discouraging thrift.

You cannot strengthen the weak by weakling the strong.

You cannot enrich the poor by impoverishing the rich.

You cannot establish sound security on borrowed money.

You cannot help the wage earner by pulling down the wage payer.

You cannot build character and courage by taking away man’s initiative and independence.

You cannot further the brotherhood of man by inciting class hatred.

You cannot keep out of trouble by spending more than you earn.

You cannot help men permanently by doing for them what they cannot and should do for themselves.

-Abraham Lincoln


42. A duty which becomes a desire will ultimately become a delight.

-George Gritter


43. When things go wrong, negative people play the blame game.


44. Luck? I don’t know anything about luck. I’ve never banked on it, and I’m afraid of people who do. Luck to me is something else; hard work – and realizing what is opportunity and what isn’t.

-Lucille Ball


45. I like to work half a day. I don’t care if the first 12 hours or the second 12 hours.

-Kammons Wilsons, CEO of Holiday Inn


46. If people knew how hard I had to work to gain my mastery, it wouldn’t seem wonderful at all.



47. The average person puts only 25% of his energy and ability into his work. The world takes off its hat to those who ut in more than 50% of their capacity, and stands on its head for those few and far between souls who devote 100%.

-Andrew Carneige


48. Far and away the best prize that life offers is the chance to work hard at something worth doing.

-Theodore Roosevelt


49. The critic is one who knows the price of everything and the value of nothing.

-Oscar Wilde


50. Something in human nature causes us to start slacking off at our moment of greatest accomplishment. As you become successful, you ell need a great deal of self-discipline not to lose your sense of balance, humility and commitment.

-H. Ross Perot


51. If you work for man, for heaven’s sake work for him.

-Kim Hubbard


52. Ability without dependability, responsibility and flexibility is a liability.


53. Nothing will take the place of persistence. Talent will not; Nothing is more common than unsuccessful people with talent. Genius will not: Unrewarded genius is a proverb. Education will not: The world is full of educated derelicts. Persistence and determination alone are omnipotent.

-Calvin Coolidge




When things go wrong,

As they sometimes will,

When the road you’re trudging seems all uphill,

When the funds are low and the debts are high,

And you want to smile, but you have to sigh,

When care is pressing you down a bit-

Rest if you must, but don’t you quit.


Life is queer with its twists and turns,

As every one of us sometimes learns,

And many a failure turns about

When he might have won had he stuck it out.

Don’t give up though the pace seems slow-

You may succeed with another blow.


Success is failure turned inside out-

The silver tint of the clouds of doubt,

And you never can tell how close you are,

It may be near when it seems so far;

So stick to the fight when you’re hardest hit

It’s when things seem worst that you mustn’t quit.


55. The quality of the work and the quality of the worker are inseparable.


56. If a man is called to be street sweeper, he should sweep streets even as Michelangelo painted, or Beethoven composed music, or Shakespeare wrote poetry. He should sweep streets so well that all the hosts of heaven and earth will pause to say, here lived a great street sweeper who did his job well.

-Martin Luther King, Jr.


57. Success seems to be connected with action. Successful people keep moving. They make mistakes, but they don’t quit.

-Conrad Hilton


58. The only limit to our realization of tomorrow will be our doubts of today.

-Franklin D. Roosevelt


59. Life is like a ten-speed bicycle. Most of us have gears we never use.

-Charles Schultz




To laugh is to risk appearing the fool.

To weep is to risk appearing sentimental.

To reach out for another is to risk involvement.

To expose feelings is to risk exposing your true self.

To place your ideas, your dreams, before a crowd is to risk their loss.


To love is to risk not being loved in return.

To live is to risk dying.

To hope is to risk despair.

To try is to risk failure.


But risks must be taken; because the greatest hazard in life is to risk nothing.

The person, who risks nothing, does nothing, has nothing, and is nothing.

They may avoid suffering and sorrow, but they cannot learn, feel, change, grow, love, or live.

Chained by their attitudes, they are salves, they have forfeited their freedom.

Only a person who risks is free.


61. A man is a hero not because he is braver than anyone else, but because he is brave for ten minutes longer.

-Ralph Waldo Emerson


62. If you think you can or if you think you can’t, you are right.

-Henry Ford


63. How many times it hundred before Franklin took the hint! How many apples fell on Newton’s head before he took the hint! Nature is always hinting at us. It hints over and over again. And suddenly we take the hint.

-Robert Frost


64. You sow a thought, you reap an action.

You sow an action, you reap a habit.

You sow a habit, you reap a character.

You sow a character, you reap a destiny.

It all starts with a thought.


65. Everyone has a will to win but very few have the will to prepare to win.

-Vince Lombardi


66. Preparation= Purpose + Principle + Planning + Practice + Perseverance + Patience + Pride


67. While one person hesitates because he feels inferior, the other is busy making mistakes and becoming superior.

-Henry C. Link


68. You have a choice in life: You can either pay the price of discipline or regret.

-Tim Connor


69. Sixty years ago I knew everything; now I know nothing; education is a progressive discovery of our own ignorance.

-Will Durant


70. Weak-minded people fall easy prey to fortune-tellers, horoscope and self-proclaimed God men who are sometimes conman.


71. Attempting half-heartily is like expecting failure and achieving it.


72. The winner’s threshold for tolerating pain becomes higher because in the end he is not training just for the game as for his character.


73. LUCK


He worked by day

And toiled by night.

He gave up play

And some delight.

Dry books he read,

New things to learn.

And forged ahead,

Success to earn.

He plodded on with

Faith and pluck;

And when he won,

men called it luck.



74. Great minds have purposes, others have wishes.

-Washington Irving


75. According to Geln Cunningham, “Desire is what made a boy with burnt legs set the world record in the one-mile run.”


76. Good things come to those who wait, but only those things left by those who hustle.

-Abraham Lincoln


77. People who do just enough to get by so they don’t get fired will never be valuable to any organization.


78. Everyone who’s ever taken a shower has an idea. It’s the person who gets out, dries off, and does something about it who makes a difference.

-Nolan Bushnell


79. What a man thinks of himself; that is what determines, or rather indicates his fate.

-Henry David Thoreau




There are little eyes upon you

and they’re watching night and day.

There are little ears that quickly

take in every word you say.

There are little hands all egar

to do anything you do;

And a little boy who’s dreaming

of the day he’ll be like you.

You’re the little fellow’s idol,

you’re the wisest of the wise.

In his little mind about you

no suspicious ever rise.

He believes in you devoutly,

holds all that you say and do;

He will say and do, in your way,

when he’s grown up like you.

There’s a wide-eyed little fellow

who believes you’re always right;

And his eyes are always opened,

and he watches day and night.

You are setting an example

every day in all you do,

For the little boy who’s waiting

to grow up to be like you.




If a child lives with criticism, he learns to condemn.

If a child lives with praise, he learns to appreciate.

If a child lives with hostility, he learns to fight.

If a child lives with tolerance, he learns to be patient.

If a child lives with ridicule, he learns to be shy.

If a child lives with encouragement, he learns confidence.

If a child lives with shame, he learns to feel guilty.

If a child lives with approval, he learns to like himself.

If a child lives with fairness, he learns justice.

If a child lives with security, he learns to have faith.

If a child lives with acceptance and friendship,

he learns to find love in the world.


82. Success is 99 percent failure.

-Soichiro Honda (founder, Honda Motor Corporation)


83. Children brought up in a loving, disciplined environment end up respecting their parents more and become law-abiding citizens. The reverse is just as true.

If discipline were practiced in every home, juvenile delinquency would be reduced by 95%.

-J. Edgar Hoover


84. Freedom is not procured by a full enjoyment of what is desired but controlling the desire.



85. Parents spend an average of 15 minutes a week in “meaningful dialog” with their children- children who are left to glean whatever values they can from peers and TV.

-Journal of the American family Association


86. I’m looking for a lot of men worth an infinite capacity for not knowing what cannot be done.

-Henry Ford


87. Our privileges can be no greater than our obligations. the protection of our rights can endure no longer than the performance of our responsibilities.

-John F. Kennedy


88. Associate yourself with people of good quality if you esteem your reputation, for it is better to be alone than to be in bad company.

-George Washington


89. No on e can make you feel inferior without your permission.

-Eleanor Roosevelt


90. Patience create confidence, decisiveness, and a rational outlook, which eventually leads to success.

-Brian Adams


91. A good beginning makes a good ending.

-English proverb


92. I will play more for the ability to deal with people than for any other ability under the sun.

-John D. Rockefeller


93. Be courteous to all, but intimate with a few, and let those few be tried before you give them for your confidence.


94. True friendship is a plant of slow growth, and must undergo and will withstand the shocks of adversity before it is entitled to the appellation.

-George Washington, January 15, 1783


95. It is one of the most beautiful compensations of life that no man can sincerely try to help another without helping himself.

-Ralph Waldo Emerson


96. Greed – is like sea water; the more you drink, the thirstier you get.


97. Egotism is the anesthetic that deadens the pain of stupidity.

-Knute Rockne


98. Jealously is… a tiger that tears not only its prey but also its own raging heart.

-Michael Beer


99. He who would learn to fly one day must first learn to stand and walk and run…

-Friederich Nietzche


100. Responsibilities gravitate to the person who can shoulder them.

-Elbert Hubbard


101. The price of greatness is responsibility.

-Winston Churchill


102. For evil to flourish, good people have to do nothing and evil shall flourish.

-Edmund Burke


103. SMILE


A smile costs nothing, but it creates much.

It enriches those who receive it without impoverishing those who give it.

It happens in a flash, and the memory of it may last forever.

None are so rich that they can get along without, and

none so poor that they cannot be richer for its benefits.

It create happiness in the home, fosters goodwill in a

business, and is the countersign of friends.

It is rest to the weary, daylight to the discouraged, sunshine

to the sad, and nature’s best antidote for trouble.

Yet it cannot be begged, bought, borrowed, or stolen, for it

is something that is worth nothing to anyone until it is

given away.

In the course of the day, some of your acquaintances may

be too tired to give you a smile. Give them one of yours.

Nobody needs a smile so much as those have none left

to give.


104. An open ear is the only believable sign of an open heart.

-David Augsburger


105. Nothing great is ever achieved without enthusiasm.

-Ralph Waldo Emerson


106. The biggest diseases today is not leprosy or tuberculosis but rather the feeling of being unwanted.

-Mother Teresa


107. It is easier to deal with honest rejection than insincere appreciation.


108. It’s an old maxim in the schools

that flattery’s the food of fools

Yet now and then you men of wit

will condescend to take a bit.

-Jonathan Swift


109. I learned a long time ago never to wrestle with a pig. You get dirty and besides, the pig likes it.

-Cyrus Ching


110. Forgive the other person but don’t forget their name.


111. Make yourself an honest man and then you may be sure there is one rascal less in the world.

-Thomas Carlyle




“I love you. Mother,” said little John;

then, forgetting his work, his cap went on,

And he was off to the garden swing,

And left her the water and wood to bring.

“I love you . Mother,” said rosy Nell –

“I love you better than tongue can tell”;

Then she teased and pouted full half the day,

Till her mother rejoiced when she went to play.

“I love you, Mother,” said little Fan;

“Today I’ll help you all I can;

How glad I am that school doesn’t keep!”

So she rocked the babe till it fell asleep.

Then, stepping softly, she fetched the broom,

And swept the floor and tidied the room;

Busy and happy all day was she,

Helpful and happy all day was she,

“I love you, Mother,” again they said,

Three children going to bed;

How do you think that mother guessed

Which of them really loved her best?

-Joy Allison


113. A courteous person who is not very sharp will go further in life than a discourteous but sharp person.


114. Rudeness is the weak man’s imitation of strength.

-Eric Hoffer


115. When someone blushes with embarrassment, when someone carries away an ache, when something sacred is made to appear common, when someone’s weakness provides the laughter, when profanity is required to make it funny, when a child is brought to tears or when everyone can’t join in the laughter, it’s a poor joke.

-Cliff Thomas


116. Rejoice and men will seek you;

Grieve, and they turn and go;

They want full measure of all your pleasure,

But they do not need your woe.

Be glad, and your friends are many;

Be sad, and you lose them all-

There are none to decline your nectared wine,

But alone you must drink life’s gall.

-Ella Wheeler Wilcox


117. Resolve to be tender with the young, compassionate with the aged, sympathetic with the striving and tolerant of the weak and wrong. Because some time in our lives we would have been all of these ourselves.

-Lloyd Shearer, 1986


118. We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence is not an act, but a habit.



119. An ounce of action is worth a ton of theory.

-Friedrich Engles


120. On the journey to life’s highway, keep your eyes upon the goal. Focus on the donut, not upon the hole.



121. Great minds have purposes, others have wishes.

-Washing Irving


122. The men who try to do something and fail are infinitely better than those who try to do nothing and succeed.

-Lloyd Jones


123. Life is hard by the yard,

But by the inch,

It’s a cinch

-Gean Gordon


124. Don’t let the fear of the time it will take to accomplish something stand in the way of your doing it. The time will pass anyway; we might just as well put that passing time to best possible use.

-Earl Nightingale


125. Obstacles are those frightful things you see when you take your eyes off your goal.

-Henry Ford


126. Make no little plans; they have no magic to stir men’s blood…

Make big plans, aim high in hope and work.

-Daniel H. Burnham


127. Do not confuse motion and progress. A rocking horse keeps moving but does not make any progress.

-Alfred A. Montapert


128. A good plan executed now is better than a perfect plan next week.

-Gen. George S.Patton, Jr.


129. Our task now is not to fix the blame for the past, but fix the course for the future.

-John F. Kennedy


130. No person was ever honored for what he received. Honor has been the reward for what he gave.

-Calvin Coolidge



131. The best and most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or even touched. They must be felt with the heart.

-Helen Keller




I asked God for strength, that I might achieve.

I was made weak, that I might learn humbly to obey…


I asked for health, that I might do greater things.

I was given infirmity, that I might do better things…


I asked for riches, that I might be happy.

I was given poverty, that I might be wise…


I asked for power, that I might have the praise of men.

I was given weakness, that I might feel the need of God…


I asked for all things, that I might enjoy life.

I was given life, that I might enjoy all things…


I got nothing I asked for – but everything I had hoped for.


Almost despite myself, my unspoken prayers were answered.

I, among all men, am most richly blesses!



133. There’s harmony and inner peace to be found in following a moral compass that points in the same direction, regardless of fashion or trend.

-Ted Koppel


134. To educate a man in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society.

-Theodore Roosevelt


135. Let no man be sorry he has done good, because others have done evil! If a man has acted right, he has done well, though alone; if wrong, the station of all mankind will not justify him.

-Henry Fielding


136. Study as if you were to live forever,

Live as if you were to die tomorrow.

-Mahatma Gandhi


137. We cannot help ourselves without helping others.

We cannot enrich our lives without enriching others.

We cannot prosper without bringing prosperity to others.

-Janette Cole, Spellman College


138. I would rather fail in a cause that will ultimately succeed than success in a cause that would ultimately fail.

-Woodrow Wilson


139. One can be a winner without a medal and one can be a loser with a medal if winning is not kept in perspective.


140. There are some defeats more triumphant than victories.

-Michel de Montaigne




An old man, going a lone highway,

Cane, at the evening, cold and gray,

To a chasm, vast, and deep, and wide,

Through which was flowing a sullen tide.

The old man crossed in the twilight dim;

The sullen stream had no fears for him;

But he turns, when safe on the other side,

And built a bridge to span the tide.

“Old man”, said a fellow pilgrim, near,

“You are wasting strength with building here;

Your journey will end with the ending day;

You never again must pass this way;

You have crossed the chasm, deep and wide –

Why build you the bridge at the eventide?”


The builder lifted his old gray head:

“Good friend, in the path I have come”, he said,

“There followed after me today

A youth, whose feet must pass this way.

This chasm, that has been naught to me,

To that fair-haired youth may a pitfall be.

He, too, must cross in the twilight dim;

Good friend, I am building the bridge for him.”

-Will Allen Dromgoole


142. A action is held together by shared beliefs and shared attiudes. That is what enables them to rise above the conflicts that plague any society. That is what gives a nation its tone, its fiber, its integrity, its moral style, its capacity to endure.

-John Gardner


143. Where the vision is one year, cultivate flowers. Where the vision is ten years, cultivate trees. Where the vision is eternity, cultivate people.

-Oriental saying


144. …. to become what we are capable of becoming is the only end of life.

-Benedict Spinoza


145. Turn your promises into commitments.

-Sunday Observer

44 Thoughts from “The Monk Who Sold His Ferrari” – By Robin Sharma

44 Thoughts from “The Monk Who Sold His Ferrari” – By Robin Sharma

1. Wage war against weaker thoughts that have crept into the palace of your mind. They will see they are unwanted and leave like unwelcome visitors.

2. Everything is always created twice first in your mind then in reality.

3. Act as if failure is impossible, and your success will be assured. Wipe out every thought of not achieving your objectives, whether they are material or spiritual. Be brave, and set no limits on the workings of your imagination.

4. Never be a prisoner of your past. Become the architect of your future.
You will never be the same.

5. When you control your thoughts, you control your mind. When you control your mind, you control your life. And once you control your life, you become the master of your destiny

6. We are not human beings having a spiritual experience. We are spiritual
beings having a human experience.

7. The quality of your life will come down to the quality of your contribution.

8. The best time to plant a tree was forty years ago. The second best time is today.

9.Nourish your spirit. Do the things you fear.

10. Sure I am that this day we are masters of our fate, that the task which has been set before us is not above our strength; that its pangs and toils are not beyond my endurance. As long as we have faith in our own cause and an unconquerable will to win, victory will not be denied us.

11. One must not allow the clock and the calendar to blind him to the fact that each moment of life is a miracle and a mystery.

12. Self knowledge is the stepping stone to step mastery.

13. Every second you spend thinking about someone elses dream, you take time away from your own.

14. The purpose of life is a life of purpose.

15. What really separates people who are habitually upbeat and optimistic from those who are consistently miserable is how the circumstances of life are interpreted and processed.

16. Its only when you have mastered the art of loving yourself that you can truly love others.

17. You will never be able to hit a target that you cannot see.

18. Always declare your goals to the world. Once you make your goals known to the world, there will instantly be pressure on you to work towards its fulfillment, since no one likes to look like a failure.

19. Courage gives you the self control to persist where others have failed.

20. The only limits on your life are the ones that you set yourself.

21. Fear is nothing more but a mental monster you have created, a negative stream of consciousness.

22. It is not what you will get out of the books that is so enriching. Its what the books will get out of you that will ultimately change your life.

23. You sow a thought, you reap an action.
Reap an action, you sow a habit.
Sow a habit, you reap a character.
Sow a character, you reap a destiny

24. One must never live in the thick of thin things.

25. Wage war against the weaker thoughts that have crept into the palace of your mind.

26. They will see that they are unwanted and leave like an unwelcome visitor.

27. When you control your thoughts, you control your mind. When you control your mind, you control your life. And once you reach a stage of being in total control of your life you become a master of your destiny.

28. Time slips through our hands like grains of sand, never to return.

29. Failing to plan is planning to fail.

30. Having the courage to say no to small things in life gives you the power to say yes to big things.

31. The most productive people in this world have cultivated the habit of doing things that less productive people don’t like doing, even though they ( more productive ppl) too might not like doing them.

32. Laughter opens your heart and soothes your soul. No one should ever take life so seriously that they forget to laugh at themselves.

33. Don’t accept a life of mediocrity when you hold such infinite potential within the fortress of your mind. Dare to tap into your greatness. Its your birthright.

34. Act as if failure is impossible and your success will be assured.

35. The quality of your life will come to the quality of your contribution.

36. Your life moves to a magical dimension when you start striving to make the world a better place.

37. Happiness is a journey, not a destination.

38. Hope for what will appear in your future is what gets you out of bed in the morning and what keeps you inspired through your days.

39. Today is the day to enjoy the fruits of your efforts. Today is the day to seize the moment and live a life that soars. Today is the day to live from your imagination and harvest your dreams. And please, never, ever forget the gift of family.

40. Life doesn’t always give you what you ask for it, but it always gives you what you need.

41. In a world where mediocrity is viewed as “normal”, world-class is considered strange.

42. Beneath procrastination lives fear.

43. The ultimate leadership mantra: “How may I best serve the most people?

44. Your genius will shine and happiness will fill your life the instant you discover your higher purpose and then direct your energies towards it.


Q6. Explain Counting.

Ans. Rather than keeping a list of n free disk addresses, we can keep the address of the first free block and the number n of free contiguous blocks that follow the first block. Each entry in the free-space list then consists of a disk address and a count.

Explain Linked List/Free List

Q1. Explain Linked List/Free List.

Ans. Another approach to free-space management is to link together all the free disk blocks, keeping a pointer to the first free block in a special location on the disk and caching it in memory. This first block contains a pointer to the next free disk block, and so on.


Figure: Linked free-space list on diskE