Q6. Why analytical engine is often called pioneer computer?
Ans. The analytical engine was the first design to introduce the basic architecture of modern computer, that is, central processing unit, storage area, memory and input-output devices. Thus it is called the pioneer computer.
Q5. Give examples for each of system software and application software. Explain the function of each type.
Ans. Examples of system software are:
(i) Operating System
(ii) Language Processor
(iii) Application Software
Examples of Operating System are: Single user OS, multiuser OS, batch processing OS, multiprocessing OS, etc.
As the name suggest, single user OS supports single user whereas multiuser OS can support multiple users. The batch Processing OS process the batches (groups) of jobs (processes given to it) and multiprocessing OS is capable of handling multiple CPUs at the same time. The examples of language processors are:
An interpreter converts and executes a high level language program into object program line by line whereas a complier converts a high level language program into object program in one go and once the program is error free, it can be executed later. An assembler converts an assembly language program into object program.
Examples of application software are:
(i) Customized Software
(ii) General Software
The customized software pertains to the requirements of a specific user for whom the software has been developed. General software is developed keeping in mind general specification of a problem.
Q4. What are the difference between hardware, software, and firmware?
Ans. Hardware is the physical tangible (touchable) components of a computer system.
Software is the computer programs that govern the operation of computers.
Firmware is the prewritten programs permanently stored in read-only memory. These configure the computer and are not easily modifiable by user.
Q3. What is the function of memory? What are its measuring units?
Ans. The memory temporarily holds the data and information during processing.
The smallest unit of memory is a byte (8 bits). A byte can store one character in binary form. Other measuring units are kilobyte (KB) equal to 1024 (210) bytes, Megabyte (MB) equal to 1024 KB, Gigabyte (GB) equal to 1024 MB and Terabyte (TB) equal to 1024 GB.
Q1. What is data? What is the output of data processing system?
Ans. Data are raw facts and figures. Data processing system transforms data into useful information.
Q171. Define Vector.
Ans. A mathematical term that refers to collection of analogous numbers.
Q170. Define Variable.
Ans. Named storage location whose value can be manipulated during program run.
Q169. Define Unsized Array.
Ans. The array in which first dimension is missing.